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1. Directing research

This work package provides intellectual leadership on reassessing European citizenship by focusing on its key concepts 'acts of citizenship' and 'enacting citizenship'.
The Open University: Prof. Engin Isin
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2. Framing research

Integrates the findings across the ENACT programme, fostering consistency in the framing and presentation of the research. Pinpoints comparative and theoretical innovations. Directs research dissemination, from scholarly books to EU policy briefings and media presentations.
The Open University: Prof. Michael Saward

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3. Enacting mobility: a more democratic European citizenship?

While European citizenship is modelled upon national ideas of citizenship, the EU as a multi-level project questions the primacy of the national. This work package challenges the value-oriented concept of European citizenship derived from national models, investigating acts of mobile citizens and their potential for constituting a democratic European citizenship.
The Open University: Dr. Jef Huysmans, Dr. Claudia Aradau, Dr. Vicki Squire
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4. State acts of depriving citizenship

The formal enactment of citizenship in a number of member states through the deprivation of citizenship is the focus. Compares legal and political obligations of states regarding the enactment of citizenship by their nationals in EU and international law and
practice, and analyses the meaning of state practices of deprivation of citizenship with respect to belonging and difference.
Radboud University: Prof. Elspeth Guild
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5. Acts of citizenship and the expansion of the political

Performative politics by excluded groups in Hungary and Germany
Investigates how those excluded by EU citizenship schemes, mainly third country nationals and undocumented migrants, become claimants of rights and pose challenges to the boundaries of political community and political space envisaged by the EU.
Central European University: Prof. Ayse Caglar, Dr. Prem Kumar Rajaram

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6. Enacting European citizenship in Turkey

Identifies the ways in which specific groups of Turkish citizens enact European citizenship, and analyzes the similarities and differences in their acts. To understand how Turkey's EU candidacy and accession process have shaped the ways in which Turkish citizens ‘enact European citizenship’', the research examines the impact of these practices on EU policies towards Turkey, and on Turkish domestic politics.
Koc University: Prof. Fuat Keyman, Ass. Prof. Bahar Rumelili
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7. European Court of Justice and enacting citizenship

Council Directive 2003/109/EC of November 2003 has officially recognised and covered the legal status of those non-EU nationals who have resided for a long period of time in the territory of a member state. This work package addresses the vulnerabilities inherent in using 'nationality' and 'residence' as the linking factors determining and giving access to certain acts of citizenship in the European Union.
The Centre for European Policy Studies: Mr Sergio Carrera
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8. Enacting European citizenship in Latvia

The focus on national, minority and civic youth discourses enables us to analyse how the process of Latvia becoming a member of the EU changed the ways Latvian citizens enact European citizenship. We examine the relationship between policy approaches of the EU institutions (before and after enlargement) and specific groups in Latvia.
Riga Graduate School of Law: Kristine Kruma
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Work Packages


The ENACT project was completed in January 2011 and is now closed. ENACT was a consortium which brought together researchers from three member states of the European Union (UK, Belgium and the Netherlands), two new member states (Hungary and Latvia) and a candidate state (Turkey) to explore in depth how European citizenship is claimed, disputed, built -- in short, enacted. Read more >



Do we really know who can act as a European citizen?
The new book Enacting European Citizenship does a curious thing: it questions the very ownership of the idea of citizenship.
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Negotiating otherness: Mozaika and sexual citizenship
The article uses the case study of Mozaika, a youth NGO, to look at trajectories of enactment of citizenship. Mozaika brings together people who act to support and raise awareness of the LGBT community in Latvia. Using the theoretical framework of the ENACT project, we ask to what extent trajectories of assertion and extension are interlinked, overlapping and complementary of each other.
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Enacting European Citizenship in 2013: Geographies of belonging
In geographical literature, interest in practices denoted as citizenship takes a particular focus on the various spaces in which citizenship is fostered, practiced and contested. Such approaches underline and discuss the social-cultural processes and practices which recast “citizenship” and its multiple geographies, often as a criticism to a definition of the concept in exclusively political terms and at the scale of the nation-state. However, in our times of globalisation and transnational migration, citizenship is often not bounded by the territory of one nation-state.
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